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  • Dragons and Mountains

    This workshop is inspired by this year of the dragon. You will learn to paint dragons, clouds, mountains and pine landscape and will be guided into the realm of Japanese ink painting and explore your creative artist way and its evolvement. The workshop will take place and Talia’s studio in Mallorca and you can enjoy the peace and beauty of the island. Studio opens at 9am and workshop begins at 9:30. We will work till 1:30pm. All basic tools and materials will be supplied for the duration of practice. You are invited to bring your own kit, and you will have the opportunity to purchase various tools and materials at the studio. Each day will begin with calligraphy and other brush practice. Learning how to paint and creating your own compositions. Work on various types of paper and learn to mount your own work in the traditional Japanese way. Worksheets to form your notebook for the workshop will be offered. Light refreshment will be served throughout the day. Day 1 Intro to the workshop / Dragon calligraphy / One line dragon / How to paint a dragon Day 2 Cloud calligraphy / Clouds / Dragon amongst clouds painting Day 3 Mountain calligraphy / On rocks and mountains / Ink landscape Day 4 Mount your paintings Day 5 Tree calligraphy / Pine dragon / Pine dragons landscape / Outro of workshop *This is a general plan and may change slightly according to need and time. What to look for : Introduction to Japanese brush, ink, paper, colours and the artist tool set. Preparing the artist workspace, and making your own ink. Learning how to hold the brush, body posture and mindset. Guidance on brush strokes, lines and marks to understand the way of ink, brush and paper. Learning various painting techniques such as line work, free style (mokutse), dry brush and washes. Practicing active meditation with your painting journey as part of empowering your artistic creative self. Observing skills and sketching practice, finding inspiration in the almond grove outside the studio. Viewing and learning about ink paintings by various Japanese ink masters, from the rich history of Japanese art and Talia's research and library. Understanding in depth themes on composition, mounting, signing and sealing your artwork. Create your own original one to five completed ink paintings. Learn how to mount your artwork in the traditional Japanese way.

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  • The Four Treasures of Ink Painting

    Known as the 'Four Treasures', these are the main tools and materials used in the practice of Japanese ink paintings and they are — brush, paper, ink stick and ink stone. Each, carry a long tradition of craftsmanship in its own right, as the quality differ from simple student kit, to highly prized, hand-crafted collectible items. Paper was made traditionally with kozo fibre (the bark of mulberry bushes), and can vary in thickness, shade and size. The brush, made of natural animal hair, ranges in hardness, size and shape. The ink stick is made out of soot or coal dust, traditionally mixed with essence oils and natural glue to form a solid stick. This black solid ink has a variety shades of black, and gradations of translucency. And finally, the ink-stone which is made usually out of slate, is there as a rough surface upon which the ink is grind. Japanese brush - 筆 fude The Japanese brush, known as fude , has been used in Japan for over a thousand years for writing and painting. Originated in China, its usage goes even further back into ancient history. It is one of the oldest painting tools known in human history. The brush is not just a brush. It was considered a magical instrument by the ancient calligraphers and artists of the East and is still revered for its capabilities today. It is a tool that facilitate the very flow of the creative process. It is used as an ‘extension’ of the hand for writing and painting. Like a magic wand, it gives expression with spirited ink mark, to the world as it is being experienced. A transformational object, no less. As one of the four treasure of ink painting, with a single brush the artist can make a thousand different ink strokes. It is in the mastering of the special qualities of the brush that a rich expression of forms can be achieved. What is the brush made of? The brush is made of natural materials. The handle usually made out of a piece of bamboo or wood. While the bristle is formed out of various types of animal hair. These are cut and strung together in a particular format, then glued, and attached to the handle. The bristle hair can range from animals such as horse, goat, sheep, weasel, badger, even chicken and peacock feathers. What is the difference between western and Japanese brushes? The preferred shape of a brush is that of a water drop like, a round full body with a sharp, neat tip. This formation allows a variety of rich lines and ink marks to be painted with a single brush, whilst using western brushes one may need different brushes to achieve the same result. Because of its unique structure, a Japanese brush, in difference from a western brush, can hold three times more ink. A high quality brush is made in such a way that the longer hair is strung on the outside, and the shorter hair is on the inside. Sometime made of different kinds of hair so that the inside ‘hold’ the ink for longer when used. Horse tail, weasel, deer and badger’s hair, are commonly used for the shorter, central part of the brush. While softer hair, used for the longer, outside part of the brush and can be made of goat, sheep, cat, and softer parts of horse and deer’s hair. These longer hair get wrapped around the central core of the brush. The softer hair tend to absorb more ink and the hair keep together when wet, and tight around the hard core hair of the brush. Types of brushes Although artists can use one brush to create all sorts of brush strokes, once practiced with, you may wish to have a selection of brushes of different size and hair type to use for various projects. Here are the main brush features to look out for - Size - brushes range from exquisite fine brushes, to small, medium, large and mega brushes, the size of a broom. Choose the sizes you are most likely to use. Firmness - the choice of which brush to use, follow on with its size, is how springy, or elastic the bristle is when used with ink on paper. For example, softer brush will have a fine flow for long orchid leaves, while a more springy brush will facilitate bamboo stem strokes in a powerful way. Function - selecting the right brushes is determined by the function you would need it for. And so from the range of brushes used for ink painting, choose your brushes according to size, theme of painting and firmness. There are other specialised brushes, such as those used for calligraphy, be it fine sutra texts or flowing large poetry scrolls. And then there are other specific range of brushes, such as those used for background washes of painting; professional mounting paintings; and layering alum to size paper. Japanese ink - 墨 sumi Japanese ink, known as sumi or boku , is an organic, natural material, that has been used in Japan for over a thousand years for writing and painting. Originated in China, its usage goes even further back into ancient history. It is one of the oldest painting material known in human history. Because of its unique quality, painting with sumi ink can creates beautiful variance shades of black and translucency that range from soft greys to deep black, making ink painting so powerfully spirited and sublime at the same time. What is sumi made of? Sumi ink traditionally comes in the form of a solid ink stick in various sizes and qualities. Made of compressed soot or coal dust, mixed with essence oils and natural glue to form the solid stick. Soot was collected either from burnt wood, like pine, making coal dust. Or soot collected from vegetable oil lamps burning, usually in caves, after which, the soot forming on the rocks surface of the cave would be carefully scratched and collected. When sumi is made of pine soot, it will produce a more matte, cold, lighter, bluish black, where when it is made of oil soot, it will be more glossy, brighter, deeper reddish black. The quality of the ink depends on the type and age of the wood used for coal dust, or the quality of the vegetable oil. Higher quality sumi , has good weight about it, as there is no air formed between the soot and glue. It would have a smooth surface texture, as all the materials are well bonded. And it will carry a quality fragrance to it, especially when grinding it for painting. Ink-stones - 硯 suzuri Ink-stones, known in Japanese as suzuri , originated in China as early as the 3rd C. BC. As it is used as a surface for grinding ink on with an ink stick, a good quality ink-stone is as important as an ink stick in producing high quality ink. It is the right consistency of ink particles and water that is required when ink is ground on the stone surface. If the surface is too flat, the ink stick will not get well ground and the ink will be watery and weak, if the surface is too rough, the ink will be coarse as it will consist of large particles, making it impossible to paint or write with. And so, it has been an ingenious long term quest to make the perfect surface that will produce thick ground ink. A tool that produces beautiful, fine, fluent ink for painting and calligraphy. This quest has made the production of ink-stone a refined craft throughout the century, both in China and Japan. How does it work? An ink-stone will usually have a flat surface upon which the ink is rubbed, known as the ‘hill’ ( oka ). It will also have a deeper part, which is known as the reservoir, where ink will be collected and form up as it is ground. It is known as the ‘well’ or ‘sea’ ( umi ). The making of ink is done by gradual rubbing of the ink stick on the ink-stone, while adding water to it. Please see video ‘how to make ink’ for full demonstration. Types of ink-stone Ink-stones are made in various sizes and shapes. Some are circular, others are rectangular. There are ink-stones with lids to match, which keeps the ink clean in between sessions. And some stones have a specially design to size wooden boxes, to protect the stone. As ink-stones production has been developed throughout thousands of years, the materials used for them varied from clay, bronze, iron, porcelain, to a variety of rock formations. Today most students and artists ink-stones are made of slate, which offers an excellent textured surface upon which ink is ground. Yet, the connoisseur of ink-stone may be keen on those made of unique rock formation, which produces particular beautiful textured surface. The duan ink-stone, with its beautiful purple/red or green colour is one highly sought after ink-stone. The mountains in the Duan prefecture in China, are known as volcanic tuff. The rock formation from this place produces fine surface, perfect for ink rubbing. The ink-stones were made of rocks from the lower part of the mountains. These mines, opened since the 7th C. onward, are no longer active. Therefore making these ink-stones highly sought after collector’s items. A well sough after Japanese ink-stone is the akame ink-stone, known to be produced since the 11th C. in Japan, at the Yamaguchi prefecture. The stone allows for smooth and fine ink with excellent texture. Akama stones, contains large amount of quartz and iron, making it easy to carve on. And so ornamental design and lids are often made for these ink-stones. Another well known ink-stone is the ogatsu ink-stone, made in Miyagi prefecture in Japan. Its colour is beautiful smoky black, made of hard slate, which is known for its texture and low water absorption. The traditional crafts of making ogatsu ink-stone dated back to the 14th. C. and it is still active today. Japanese paper - 紙 washi Japanese paper, known as washi , is a fine yet strong, hand made material made from the bark of mainly mulberry bush. Because of its unique qualities, painting with ink on washi can creates beautiful variance shades of blacks and translucencies, ranging from soft greys to deep black. It is one of the ‘four treasures’ materials, which together with the ink, ink stone and brush, have been making ink painting a powerful spirited and sublime practice at the same time. Washi was first known to be made in 105 AD by a Chinese official, and introduced to Japan in 610 AD by a Korean Buddhist monk. The process of paper making in Japan has been refined throughout the years, to a most sophisticated high level production, with over 230 types of paper made at the hight of this hand made industry. Today only few hundred families still making paper in this unique tradition. What is Japanese paper made of? Washi is made from the barks of various shrubs. In a process of steaming, or long wetting time it is transformed into fibre used to create fine paper. The most common bark used for paper, is from the bark of mulberry ( broussonetia ), known as - kozo . This plant has been growing in the wild for centuries in Japan. It takes two to three years for the bark of the kozo to mature enough to be used for paper making. Harvesting occurs in late fall or early winter after the leaves have dropped. Shoots are cut near the base of the plant and are tied into bundles that can weigh over forty-five pounds. A second type is - mitsumata - known as Oriental Paperbush ( edgeworthia chrysantha ) typically cultivated on hillsides, interspersed with Japanese cedars and cypress trees. It is harvested in much the same way as kozo , except the tied bundles are often placed in rivers after harvesting to preserve freshness. Mitsumata produces fibres that are soft, absorbent, and insect resistant. It is often used in combination with other fibres. Pure mitsumata produces fine writing paper. The highest quality fibres are used in making paper that Japanese bank notes are printed on. The third type is - gampi - which is harvested in spring, when the plant is saturated with water and sap. Gampi can neither be steamed like kozo or mitsumata , nor cultivated with much success. Gampi plant grows in the wild and its extremely tough, long fibres, must be harvested from February to May. The naturally damp-resistant and insect-resistant fibres are excellent for making long-lasting paper. The slick, lustrous paper makes a distinct crackling sound when handled. The scarcity of gampi fibres and the high quality of the product makes it a rare and expensive paper. It is often used as calligraphy paper or in the pounding of gold leaf. Types of paper There are two main types of paper used in ink painting. One is raw paper, slightly rough texture and soft. This paper is absorbent and will react with the ink and water. The second type is sized paper, which has a layer of alum solution coat, making it non absorbent and resisting ink and colour. It usually has a smooth and fine surface texture. Unsized paper was loved by Zen monks and artists as it reacts well to free style painting and calligraphy. It echo the bold, free brush strokes and requires an experienced usage of ink and brush. The raw paper will reflect variety shades of ink fine hues and colours. Sized paper was used as early as the 10th Century in Japan, by poets and artists, for poetry and story telling scrolls. The paper was used for detailed artwork and fine sutra copying and decoration. The ink ‘sits’ on the surface of the paper, and will not ‘run’ on the paper. It is used today for delicate line work, especially with figures and fine landscape. There are additional varieties of absorbency grades and textured paper, including semi-sized paper, where depending on the artist’s subject and desired effect, the paper is chosen. Format, Size, Texture and Sound of paper Paper can be found in three main formats. As individual sheets of different sizes, where the common largest sheet size is 69 x 137 cm. As rolled paper, which can come in variety of sizes, such as 34 x 69 cm and 46 x 69 cm and can be rolled for few meters. And third, paper which is already mounted on cardboard, ready to paint on, known as shikishi . Handmade Japanese paper, despite its delicate feel is very strong and supple. It has one smooth side and the other slightly rough. Painting is done on the smooth side, for good absorption effect. The rough side is used for the mounting of finished artwork on a backing paper. You will also find that paper comes in different thicknesses. This reflects the making process and does not necessarily relate to the actual strength of the paper. You may choose different thickness according to the way you wish to present your artwork. If you want to mount the painting, a thinner paper is preferred. If you wish to frame it in the western style then you may wish to work on a thicker paper, where you may not need to mount it. Paper has different crackling sounds when handled. Get used to listen to that sounds and begin to recognise different quality of paper according to its sound. Getting your own set As an ink practitioner, you will discover in time, your own preferred brushes, size of paper and inks you enjoy working with and create your own set. As a beginner, you may wish to try a beginner’s set. See below recommended sources in the U.K. and the U.S. If you are drawn to keep working in this medium, you may want to invest in a good quality set to last you a lifetime. * STUDIO SETS - Quality Japanese MADE sets - curated by Talia ArtBrush comprehensive Sets - curated by Talia - Made in Japan Traveller Set Celedon Set Blue & White Set U.K. Sources - Recommended for beginners - Affiliate with Jackson’s Art Supply PAPER Paper Pads 24x32cm 20 sheets Papaer Pads   30x40cm 20 sheets INK Liquid Bottled Ink  60ml If you want to grind your own ink - Ink Stone Ink Stick BRUSHES Fine Brush Fine Brush Medium SIze Brush Medium Size Brush Medium Size Brush Traveler Box Set I - Made in Japan. Ink stick, ink stone, one fine brush, water dropper, in a beautiful wooden box. You will still need another large / medium brush to add to your painting set. Traveller Box Set II - Made in Japan. Ink stick, ink stone, two fine brushes, water dropper, in a wooden box. You will still need another large / medium brush to add to your painting set. OTHER TOOLS FOR YOUR SET Ceramic Flower - For mixing colours Brush Rest Brush Mat - A natural bamboo case to keep your brushes WATAERCOLOUR Watercolour Set of 12 Colours Watercolour Set of 18 Colours Watercolour Set of 24 Colours U.S. Sources - Recommended for beginners - Affiliate with Jackson’s Art Supply PAPER Paper Pads   24x32cm 20 sheets Papaer Pads   30x40cm 20 sheets INK Liquid Bottled Ink  60ml If you want to grind your own ink - Ink Stone   Ink Stick   BRUSHES Fine Brush Fine Brush Medium SIze Brush Medium Size Brush Medium Size Brush   Traveler Box Set I  - Made in Japan. Ink stick, ink stone, one fine brush, water dropper, in a beautiful wooden box. You will still need another large / medium brush to add to your painting set. Traveller Box Set II    - Made in Japan. Ink stick, ink stone, two fine brushes, water dropper, in a wooden box. You will still need another large / medium brush to add to your painting set. OTHER TOOLS FOR YOUR SET Ceramic Flower   - For mixing colours Brush Rest   Brush Mat   - A natural bamboo case to keep your brushes WATAERCOLOUR Watercolour Set  of 12 Colours Watercolour Set  of 18 Colours Watercolour Set  of 24 Colours To read further comprehensive essays on the Ink artist tools-set and for a list of quality tool-sets sources - check out ArtBrush Library Find out your favourite Japanese ink painting courses with ArtBrush Online HERE ** First image is by Katsushika Hokusai -A surimono for the year of the horse 1822 ✥ ✥ ✥

  • Monochrome Ink - Beyond the Rainbow

    5 values for ink painting - an artist contemplative take What happens when we paint using only black ink? What happens when we put asides the rich palette of many colours and focus our attention with the one medium and colour? Its not that we don't love colour, we do. Colours are the bountiful beauty of this earth, governed by the rainbow. So there is the wonder, what is beyond the rainbow? What is the 'pot of gold' over the rainbow and how do we experience it? Well, looking out from here, it seems like there is a vast universe out there, with limitless creative possibilities. If we dare eliminating colour, even just for a short while, by taking up the ink stick as our medium of expression, it may just act as a unique connective tool. Bringing together endless painting potentialities, images both from out there in the universe, as well as inside us, as our consciousness, our heart-mind, naturally is a part of the great creation. And somehow, just like that, by being humble and subtracting the non-essentials, we may discover new rhythm and form and shape of our own being. The Essence of Earth Japanese ink, known as sumi, is made of ancient pine trees coal, or ashes and soot collected from oil lamps. It comes off the earth and goes through a metamorphosis of substance. This process makes it a rich matter with beautiful variety of deep black colours, ranging from black-red hues to dark black-blue ones. This black is not really a colour as such. It is made of the essence of the Earth. The elements of earth and fire, of water, air and of wood, coming together in an alchemical way to create a magical material, a conduit, an agent with unique characters that allow us, the artists, to use it in such a way, so as to give meaning and expression to our living experience. And the viewer, can be immersed and enjoy themesleves dwelling in this very same experience. Minimialism and Abundance Using black ink allows the artist to find their focus on the essential. Discovering what works in a composition and how to give meanings with visuals that are not disturbed by much noise and fluff. It looks like minimalistic art, and it is, as it holds in it the very plentiful of the core artistic notion, by getting rid of the non-essential. It is a journey of sorting out, eliminating, and reducing what is not of the very essence of the visual story. It is an art of subtraction, holding the abundance of resolved raw beauty. Flow When working with monochrome ink we are not distracted by colour. Our attention is tuned to the energy flow of the painting, be it an experimental, abstract image, or a planned composition of a determined theme. The very action of using ink and water on paper, facilitates a natural movement, which may well bring forth a radiant richness of shades and mixing combinations. This process picks up our own movement. And being within movement is finding a flow. We may choose a rhythm according to a theme, or, how we are feeling at a particular time. Maintaining this flow offers strength, well being and quality brush strokes. Dream world Do you dream in colour? Do you remember the past or have visions of the future in colour? And when you imagine something, a place, a person, an experience, how does that appear in your heart-mind? Memories, dreams, visions, our world of imagination, these, do not seem to have colour in them. Perhaps they arrive from a multi-dimensional place deep in ourselves, beyond time and space as we know it. Beyond colour as we see it. It is not by chance that ink painting is probably the most ancient painting practice within the story of humanity. Somehow, the value it holds is still current, providing a most connective self empowerment practice, then and now. When you are practicing ink painting you are connecting to an ancient Way. A way of the masters of painting and their streams of wisdom and heart felt perception. Sharing their unique views of the complexity of nature and its divine aspects and patterns. Thus it is ancient, yet raw and of the moment. Beyond time and place. When we paint with black ink we are invited to connect with a dream world that is beyond colour, that may be ancient, yet potent. In this our consciousness is eternal, part of the dream world of creation. Beyond the rainbow Black is not a colour, yet it is all colours. It allows us to observe, connect and give presence to shapes, forms and moods of us, as creator. Black ink painting does not rely on shades of beautiful reds or greens or blues, it goes beyond the framework of earth, the rainbow colours range, into a deep realm within creation. In this realm, time and space may have different expressions, or may not even exist, as it is limitless. Whether you make an abstract ink marks and lines, or depict a flower or landscape, your own expression of it may be timeless, as it will have colour, in a strange way, by its absence. What if the rainbow was binding us to this place and time. What if its palette of colours is limiting our vision and creative expression. And what if beyond the rainbow there is a vast range of colours we have never seen. Clusters of hues and light our eyes have never experienced. Be it the harsh light we live in, overly usage of computer's visuals, or just our habits and conditional views, we don't know enough about the light and glow which is out there. Those night time deep dark shades, which can be seen on a starry night, so rich, so diverse, we can only glimpse at when in nature. Or when witnessing the breathtaking iridescent Northern Lights coming in and out of Earth. Even though we may not experience these often, they have never gone, they are awaiting us. Take a break from painting in colour, and take up the ink and brush. Just for a moment, raise the veil and see what happens when you train afresh your heart-mind vision away from the rainbow and be washed by starlight, transcending time and space in the very realm of your heart. 'Stand firm in the sea of ink, seek life in the movement of the brush-tip; create a new surface and texture on the foot-long material, and give forth light from the unformed darkness. Then, even if the brush and ink and the drawings are all wrong, the 'me', the 'self', remains there. For one controls the ink and is not controlled by it, handles the brush and is not handled by it. One gives form to the embryo, the embryo does not assume its own form. From one, it divides into ten of thousands, and from the ten thousand shapes of things, one attends to the One, transforming the One into the primeval cloudy forms - this is the height of artistic ability.' Quotes on painting / Shih T'ao (1642-1707) Learn More > Live workshop - learn to paint Japanese ink painting with Talia at Mallorca studio - September 2024 Details and booking > > For an in-depth Foundation Course on Japanese ink painting check it out here Sign up for a one-time payment of £220 > > 'Tendril' - Ink Artwork Series by Talia check online gallery HERE Images credit copyrights 1. Haboku Landscape / Sesshū Tōyō (1420-1506) / ink on paper / 11.5 × 75.8 cm / Myōshin-ji temple, Kyoto, Japan 2. Six Persimmons / Mu Ch'i (13th) / ink on paper / 36.2 × 38.1 cm / Daitoku-ji Kyoto, Japan 3. Vine / Itō Jakuchū (1716-1800) / Price Collection L.A. U.S.A 4. Mountain hut under the winter moon / Nagaswa Rosetsu (1754-1799) / Ink on silk / Kōsetsu Museum, Japan Images from public domain sources. All efforts were made to respect copyrights owner where possible.

  • Ink Dragons

    7 roles of dragons in Japanese painted art of the Edo period Originally from India and China, dragon images were mentioned in early kami worship folklore of Japan. Although not quite seen by the naked eye, dragons were popular in folklore and tradition, associated with powerful forces. Protectors of the universe and the dwellings of man, in service to Chinese emperors and Taoist Immortals, rulers of wind and rain, lords of precious stones and representatives of the creative yang force in Tao. After being incorporated into Buddhism, dragons humbly assumed the position of protectors of divinities, guardians of temples, and bringers of rain. And yet one has to take into account the possible religious manipulation of dragon images and roles to fit with the indoctrination of new religions upon older ones; and look for what actually is rooted in true appreciation of the world of phenomena. In a culture so inclined to visual images, Japanese art serves as a major source for historical appreciating of the forces at play in the belief and configuration of its culture. The Edo period (1600-1868), particularly the 18th century, was a time of revival and development of the arts, expansion of thought, visual dimension and language. In tandem with its official art schools, scholarly and religious art, there evolved a growing movement of individual artistic expression, and the development of paintings and prints of the floating world (Ukioy-e). During this period visual language provided richness and variety of thought and style compounded, in a relatively short time, to meet the creative needs of a changing culture. Taking into account the rich experimental atmosphere of Japanese art during the Edo period, this writing will highlight usage of dragons as part of the visual language in the arts of Japan.  Also will be included a consideration of the dragon’s role as a motif for political, religious, folkloric and decorative contexts. It is part of an extensive explorative essay on the subject, that can be found in full with bibliography and notes on ArtBrush Online library HERE. Unseen dragons River and lakes, waterfall and streams, clouds and rain, storms and typhoons, are climatic powers, created by the constant movement of the permeating elements of water and air with different intensities and combinations. They have repeated patterns of curves, swirls, ellipses and spirals, with no sharp lines. Dragon images were visualised from the pattern of these natural forces. When painted as part of the elements dragons are mostly up to two-thirds seen while the rest of their shape blends with the elements. Kanō Michinobu ink painting, who was heading the Shogunate’s official painting school at the time, shows a dragon and a waterfall that merge to the point where it is one entity. In accordance with the Japanese local belief that every waterfall has its guardian deity, Michinobu depicts an image that follows the patterns, shapes and boundaries that the waterfall presents. Ascending and descending at will, moving freely through the elements, dragons were held accountable for natural phenomena, causers of changes. The dragon’s characteristic of transformation was considered to be the very spirit of change, a time when good luck and success were indeed needed. Time dragons Dragon symbols were used often as measures of the twelve-year cycles. They were also used to measure the hours in a twenty-four-hour cycle divided by two to form a unit for each of the twelve animals of the Asian Zodiac. The dragon represents the hours between 7-9 am. Early in the morning, which for some working people is the brightest time of the day, yet for others, like the working girls of the Yoshiwara quarters is time to rest. In Kitagawa Utamaro print, part of a series of twelve compositions showing scenes from day and night life of Yoshiwara courtesans, Utamaro depicts two girls under the same futon waking up, but not quite. Time is depicted in a clocklike structure on the top right part of the print. The Portuguese introduced clocks to Japan in the late 16th century. By the 1780s, pocket watches became common amongst the merchant class and standing clocks appeared in wealthy homes and established shops. Although the structure of the clock in the print keeps the general form of it, it does not attempt to represent a real clock (the Japanese kept to their own time count), it represented social status. It was not the working of the machine that mattered as much as displaying wealth, success and order. New adaptation of Western technology in Japanese artistic representations of time reflects sophistication of style and class. The name of the hour (that of the dragon) is written on the bell at the top, the bottom is the name of the series title; the middle part depicts various flowers of the seasons. Temple dragons One of the first painters reputed to depict dragons was a third century Chinese artist, Ts’ao Pu-hsing. It was said that he learned to paint the dragon from an actual red dragon that resided in a lake, and the painting, even two centuries later, had the power to bring rain by causing clouds to gather when held over water. Ts’ao Pu-hsing was considered the first to use dragons on walls and ceilings of Buddhist temples. As if descending from above, dragons on temple ceilings were designed to fit in an egg shape circle around the ceiling. Adopted by Buddhism as guardians of the faith and as bringers of rain and protection from draught. The dragon in Honji-do , the biggest temple in Nikko, the compound mausoleum of the Shogun Tokugawa Ieasu (rin-no-ji), is an enormous image painted on the ceiling. Made in black and white, the dragon covers most of the main hall (21x14 meters). It serves as a prime example of an ‘official dragon’, in service to the Shogun. It is powerful, authoritative and serious in its guardianship. Still a widely practiced custom today, when a person enters a temple where a dragon is painted, they clap hands under its head. The echo of its roar, when heard, confirms their success and grants their wishes. While official dragons were fierce and dramatic, yet showing submission and duty, a whole body of expressive, personal, highly sophisticated and eccentric work was intensively developing in the studios of individual artists, mainly around Kyoto, but also in Edo and Osaka. Their dragon images exhibited a similar excitement, humour, mystery and lively expression. Exaggerated and overdramatic at times, they reflected above all the growing artistic freedom and originality of the era. Official dragons “His horns resemble those of a stag, his head that of a camel, his eyes those of a demon, his neck that of a snake, his belly that of a clam, his scales those of a carp, his claws those of an eagle, his soles those of a tiger, his ears those of a cow. Upon his head he has a think like a broad eminence (a big lamp) called ch’in muh. If a dragon has no chi’n muh, he cannot ascend to the sky.” Wang Fu (Han dynasty 206BC-221AD) Of humble origins, when Liu Bang seized the Chinese throne during the Han dynasty (206BC-220AD) he could not compare himself with kings and princes of the Six States period before him. To consolidate the authority of his rulership, a tale was invented about his mother being conceived by a roaring dragon. Incorporating the symbol used by Taoism for geomancy and divination practices, dragons became, from then on, directly linked with the emperor. When Buddhism was introduced to China, it adopted the dragon to promote its superiority over Taoism. The embracing of the dragon’s image as part of the Shogun’s official school of painting, also adopted the ideas associated with the dragon by Taoism and Buddhist belief. It appears as a powerful authority, beyond human reach, reflecting the character of its patrons. While Buddhism influenced the themes of freedom from suffering and the quest for enlightenment in medieval Japan, the Tokugawa discourse was concerned with the achievement of a stable society. The adoption of Neo-Confucianism as a state philosophy was an attempt to promote social order, ethical life and a hierarchical system based on adherence to authority, the Shogunate attempted to control and rule the growing population and massive urbanization of the Edo period. Kanō Sanraku was an established figure, the head of the Kyoto branch of the Kanō school and a student of the famous Kanō Eitoku. The dragon’s image is powerful and fierce, confronting a pair of tigers on an opposite screen. The composition is heavy, and although it attempts to depict the vicious whirls of strong wind, the gold background makes it quite heavy and arresting. Kanō school decorative styles and themes, offered confirmation of the ruler’s authority and legitimacy. The dragon, of course, was very useful, seen as powerful protector of the nation, provider of rain guaranteeing good harvest. Its image in backdrop screens for the Shogunate presents its powerful obedience to the ruler. It implies the greatness of the leadership, by being reflective of the ruler’s knowledge and education in relation to history, the natural world, Chinese literature and religious ideas. In contrast to dragon motifs in the latter part of this essay, which are personalized, full of emotion and heartfelt spirit, the ‘official’ dragons occupy a moral behaviour and intellectual philosophy. Tokugawa rulers were afraid of fires, not only because of its destructive force, but also because of its social upheaval and disorder that it caused. The great fire of Edo in 1657 destroyed daimyo estates, parts of Edo castle, and left more than 100,000 dead. Following this disaster, the Shogunate authorities ordered the establishment of permanent firefighting units (jō-bikeshi). This was the beginning of a new organized system of fire brigades. A fireman’s costume was first designed with a dragon and tiger design. Not indigenous to Japan and depicted as big cats; tiger images were imported from China. Strongest of the beasts, and quick as the wind, tigers were used in the feng-shui (‘patterns of wind and water’) system of reading and regulating nature’s influence, as representing powers of the wind itself. Coupled with the dragon, they symbolized the forces of wind and water and their interplay in nature. Their images painted on the Shogun’s fire brigade uniform, were considered protective powers of the elements of water and wind. They represented control over fire where the wind could shifts the direction of a fire, and the water could divert and extinguish it. Furthermore, by combining religious and folk belief in the dragon images, its depiction implied the enforcement of law and order that the Shogunate was aiming at. Decorative dragons Decorations included in prints and books offered an insight into popular images of the period, the mood on the streets of the big cities, the dreams and hopes of people as well as their humour, general knowledge and major attraction. Dragon images were used, for example, as decoration on the costumes of high-ranking courtesans , and kabuki actors , incorporated in the visual language of the entertainment districts as well as in general education and folklore.  Prints and book illustrations reveal the public taste and more so, what people believed in and how they presented their beliefs. While dragon images used on costumes by Edo fire brigades were considered to hold protective powers against the city many fires, the courtesan’s fashion of late Edo was flourishing with extravagant colors and incorporation of rich folk symbols, not always with the obvious meaning. Dragon images painted with black ink on silk, contrasted by the very colourful overlays of printed patterned kimono became very popular. Kuniaki, a pupil of Kunisada who produced actor and genre prints as well as paintings of Edo beauties, painted an overly dressed courtesan with flamboyant hairstyle, trying to walk on very high heels with her attendant (kamuro). The dragons on both figure’s kimono, are almost the only appropriate theme to match the overly decorated costume. The big dragon on the courtesan’s costume coils around her body, with its tail peeking out on her left side. He is staring at a smaller dragon, which is coiling itself around the younger attendant’s kimono. Her sleeve, hiding her hand, reveals a painted claw. The intersection of glances creates tension and humour. As the courtesan and attendant exchange looks, so the dragons stare at each other. Who is looking at whom? The dragons, no longer formal and fierce, are comic and amusing. Laughing dragons The need for new intellectual ideas and artistic updates in a growing, changing society caused renewed interest in Chinese legends and literature. Copies of Chinese paintings served as inspiration for eccentric artists like Shōhaku in their discovering of new boundaries of artistic expression. Taoist Immortals were known in Taoism as beings that began their lives as humans, underwent physical and spiritual transformation, and then lived beyond the bounds of governing laws (yin and yang). Free spirits who could move through the elements, and serve people and circumstances, they interacted on behalf of mortals with the gods and the Tao. Often depicted as unconventional in appearance, emphasizing their rejection of norms and rules, their transcendent state of being, as well as their supernatural capabilities. A water dragon traditionally served as a vehicle to the Chinese immortal Lu Dongbin, but Shōhaku treatment of the theme of Immortals is extreme and amusing. The Immortal seems to be reclining on the head of a rather confused dragon. He is hardly able to balance himself amongst the dragon’s swirl of clouds and water, while holding a bowl which could be magic or for begging. He is stretched to the side in an attempt to keep stable, while the dragon force moves forward. Strong black ink brushstrokes contrast the detailed blue garment and its red sash. With fine details of comic facial expression, both Immortal and dragon convey the wit and humour of Shōhaku’s thought and brush, evident in his extravagant artistic expression and wild character. Transforming dragons It was told that during the 4th century another great Chinese artist, Ku K’ai-chih, painted dragons without eyes. When asked why, he said “My dragons are live and if I draw their eyes they will fly away.” From then on, eyes were the last to be painted, for if the painting was real enough it might cause all sorts of natural disasters provoked by dragons. Many stories were told of painters whose work was so real and animated that their dragon flew away. The supernatural powers of dragons come to life with painted art. In the same way as coming in and out of water and air, dragon images seem to use the paper to appear in the world of our vision, only to depart again. Kōin, a student of Goshun and a kyoka (mad verse) poet, turned to legendary subjects in his work. According to traditional belief, an image of a dragon emerging from a bowl surrounded by people, has a hidden message in it, referring to a phrase ‘a dragon out of a spittoon’ (hifuki kara ryū),  meaning that the unexpected in life may happen at any time. In conclusion Embedded in storytelling, religious legends and folklore, the dragon’s image is mystical and mysterious. Not given to obvious definition as an animal nor a dreadful creature, it remains unseen. Likened to the element’s flowing traces of curves and spiral with no sharp lines, its image follows these formless shapes, created by the patterns of water and wind. Similar by nature to climatic change, and to the transforming quality of the planetary water cycle, dragon images offer boundaries of artistic representation of the natural world phenomena and its powers. Despite the fact that the dragon’s image is absent from the painting on the left, its ecology, habitation, arrival or departure, can be seen in the dragon’s cloud. The painted waves of the sea, suggests the unseen forceful energy of a dragon – without the dragon itself. The wide range of dragon’s visual characteristic of power authority and efficiency, as well as, playfulness and transformation of states, reflects on the very nature of forces at play during Edo period and its artistic expansions. Originated as a powerful symbol of natural forces, protectors of the universe and in service to sages and rulers, dragon images were incorporated into the Shogunate’s and temple’s empowered symbols, as well as used in the counting of the hour, the season and the year. The 18th century art demonstrated the expansion of the image’s role into decoration and folklore symbols in print, costume, and tattoo, even to be exhibited on the commercial market. The visual language of dragon images of that time, is kaleidoscopic and rich in its role, style and mode of expression. “The bright moon pearl is concealed in the oyster; the dragon is there.” Shi King Learn More > Learn to paint ink dragons with Talia at her Mallorca studio - June 2024 Details and booking > > For the comprehensive essay on 'The Visual Language of Ink Dragons in Japanese Art of the Edo period' with Bibliography and notes and other writings on Japanese ink paintings sign up to ArtBrush Library Sign up for a one-time payment of £55 > Get > A selection of ink dragon paintings by Talia is available for you to purchase direct from the studio collection check out the portfolio collection Ink Dragons > Images credit copyrights All efforts were made to respect copyrights owner where possible.

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  • Galleries and Prints from Talia Lehavi Studio: View the Latest Work from Artist Talia Lehavi

    Gallery View the latest work from Talia. If you’re interested in a piece, wish to see more collections from the portfolio, or arrange a studio viewing please contact Talia . ​ Nothing but Love Wrinkled Angelic Canopy Irises Notes on Pine Hundred Million Blossoms Ink Dragons Buddha Realm Tendril Journey Time Bubbles Diamond Clouds Fired Ceramic Limited Edition Prints FEATURED COLLECTIONS

  • ArtBrush: Japanese Ink Painting Courses and Online School by Talia Lehavi

    Learn Japanese Ink Painting Online courses and workshops that teach students how to master Japanese ink painting, step by step. Start my journey Welcome to ArtBrush Online School for Japanese Ink Painting ArtBrush will assist you in developing your skills in Japanese Ink Painting while giving you a deeper appreciation for this tradition within Japanese art history. Our online school's step-by-step courses are designed to allow you to practice brush exercises, guiding you in creating your own ink paintings while experiencing the meditative nature of the process. Watch the video to learn more. TESTIMONIALS Hear from students that took our courses Read what our students said about their experience taking our ArtBrush online courses. Very detailed and informative course! I have always been an admirer of Asian traditional painting and this course provided me of an insider's look of this magic world. With the help of Talia and the ArtBrush online courses, I have managed to learn, exercise and master special brushwork techniques otherwise inaccessible to me. I also got an overall understanding of the aesthetics around this beautiful world of ink painting. I totally recommend this! ​ — Olympia T. Artist & Writer INSTRUCTOR Meet your teacher ArtBrush founder, Talia Lehavi, is an artist, practitioner and teacher of traditional Japanese ink painting. Following years of teaching, her love and passion for this artistic medium has now prompted her to create ArtBrush, the online school for Japanese ink painting. "My own extensive journey in Japanese ink painting, studying with mentors for seven years and completing an MA at the School of Oriental and Africa Studies in London, has provided me with a wealth of knowledge that I want to share with you. My experience has allowed me to teach Japanese ink painting Worldwide, and I’ve created ArtBrush to allow past and new students to learn alongside me and progress in their creative journey, wherever you are in the World." COURSES New ArtBrush courses The Foundation Course covers the four traditional themes for the beginner ink painter student. These are bamboo, plum-blossom, wild orchid and the yellow empress, known as the chrysanthemum. Summer flowers and insects course is a more advanced course to guide you how to paint water irises, wild roses, beautiful hydrangeas, and grand peonies. You will also learn to paint dragonflies, butterflies, ants and bees and discover how to add these insects to your composition in such a way that they will enhance your painting. Each course also includes a tools and materials check-list, pdf worksheets, and bonus compositions for you to practice in your own time. Courses Foundation Course Step-by-step how to create beautiful Japanese ink paintings of wild orchids, bamboo, chrysanthemum, and plum blossom View Course Summer Flowers and Insects Step-by-step how to create beautiful Japanese ink paintings of water irises, wild roses, hydrangea, grand peonies, dragonflies, bees, ants and butterflies View Course LESSONS ArtBrush lessons Lessons are single, focused courses on one specific subject. Each lesson also includes a tools and materials check-list, pdf worksheets, and additional compositions for you to practice in your own time. ​ Please note: some lessons are included in the ArtBrush Courses. Wisteria Step-by-step how to create beautiful Japanese ink paintings View Lesson Wild Orchids Step-by-step how to create beautiful Japanese ink paintings View Lesson Plum Blossom Step-by-step how to create beautiful Japanese ink paintings View Lesson Hydrangeas and Butterflies Learn to paint step-by-step beautiful hydrangeas and butterflies in ink and colour View Lesson Pine and Ikebana This unique course was filmed live at the London Flower School combining the two artistic forms of ink painting and Ikebana View Lesson Bamboo Step-by-step how to create beautiful Japanese ink paintings View Lesson Water Irises and Dragonflies Learn to paint step-by-step beautiful irises and magical dragonflies View Lesson Peonies, Ants and Butterflies Learn to paint step-by-step summer peonies, ants and butterflies in ink and colour View Lesson Shallow Water - Crabs and Shrimps Step-by-step how to create beautiful Japanese ink paintings View Lesson Chrysanthemum Step-by-step how to create beautiful Japanese ink paintings View Lesson Roses and Bees Learn to paint step-by-step beautiful roses and bees in ink and colour View Lesson MANUALS Manuals: Text-based learning Manuals are written guides to assist you in your Japanese ink painting experience. Falcon and Pine Step-by-step how to paint the majestic falcon and evergreen pine View Manual Tiger and Bamboo Step-by-step how to paint tiger and bamboo View Manual MEMBERSHIPS ArtBrush Memberships Memberships provide you with an all-rounded, in-depth learning experience for your journey in Japanese ink painting. ​ ArtBrush expanding library provides you with writings and essays on the history of Japanese ink painting. ArtBrush Library Selection of writings, essays and contemplations to guide you with your Japanese Ink painting studies View Membership ArtBrush Lifetime Membership Providing you lifetime access to all courses, lessons, manuals, and library View Membership TOOLS The tools and materials needed for ink painting The four main tools and materials used in this practice are brush, paper, ink stick and ink stone. Known as 'the four treasures ' , these carry a long tradition of craftsmanship in their own right and their quality varies from a simple student's kit to a highly-prized, collectible, hand-made sets. Paper is made of various percentages of kozo fiber (made from the bark of mulberry bush). It can vary in thickness, shade and size. The brush, made of natural animal hair, varies in hardness, size and shape. The ink stick, known as sumi, is made out of soot or coal dust, traditionally mixed with essential oils and natural glue to form a solid stick. This black solid ink has a range of shades of black and a variety of translucency. The ink-stone, known as suzuri, is traditionally made out of slate, which has a rough surface upon which to grind the ink. View all Tools and Materials blue & white set View Set celadon set View Set traveller set View Set STUDENTS View work from our students Talia is the founder of the new ArtBrush Online school for Japanese ink painting. The school offers step-by-step courses that teach students how to master Japanese ink painting. It catered to beginners and those with prior ink painting experience. There are a wide variety of courses available, including single courses that focus on one specific subject. ​ The Foundation Course covers the four traditional themes - bamboo, plum-blossom, wild orchid and the yellow empress, known as the chrysanthemum. ArtBrush expanding library provides you with writings and essays on the history of Japanese ink painting. Each course also includes a tools and materials check-list, pdf worksheets, and additional compositions for you to practice in your own time. Judy H. Raji N. Richard D. Dr. Tamar S. Judy H. Raji N. Leoni C. FOLLOW US Follow ArtBrush on Social Media Please follow ArtBrush on Instagram and Pinterest to stay updated with upcoming courses

  • ArtBrush Japanese Ink Painting and Art History Library: A Selection of writings, essays and contemplations - ArtBrush - Talia Lehavi

    ArtBrush Library Selection of writings, essays and contemplations to guide you with your Japanese Ink painting studies Enrol for £55 Course Description About this membership Welcome to ArtBrush Library, a hub for learning about the history of Japanese ink painting, created to assist in expanding your knowledge and appreciation of this traditional process. The library is a growing source of writings and essays, covering a range of subjects including tools, materials, ink masters, contemplative notes for the artist, viewing paintings and exploring ink painting within Japanese art history. Plus, there are a selection of Hebrew writings available. Please see included writings in the content section below. ArtBrush Library will continue to grow with new material, so be sure to visit often to harness this tool within your ink painting journey. All of the material on the library is downloadable, allowing you to print and create your own reference book at home. ''Study as if you never could get enough of it, as if you were afraid something might just get away from you'' - Confucius GALLERY Insight to ArtBrush Library content Access the ArtBrush Library Selection of writings, essays and contemplations to guide you with your Japanese Ink painting studies Enrol for £55 INSTRUCTOR Meet your teacher Talia Lehavi is an artist, a practitioner and a teacher of traditional Japanese ink painting. Following years of teaching, her love and passion for this artistic medium has now prompted her to create ArtBrush - online school for the studies of Japanese ink painting. The school is designed for students of all levels, from around the world, who are excited to learn, explore and discover the joy of ink painting and its many facets. TESTIMONIALS What our students say about their experience Talia’s ArtBrush online school guides its students onto a soulful journey into the realms of traditional Japanese ink painting. It is a unique combination between the disciplined perfection of the inner discourse of the hand, brush and ink, with an opportunity for new horizons as well as deep and spontaneous individual insights. — Tsipi W. Art Historian As a beginner in Japanese Ink Painting, Talia's approach to teaching made me feel completely comfortable. I have learnt so much about the history, processes and application of Ink Painting and cannot wait to continue pursuing my newfound skill set even further. I would recommend ArtBrush to everyone, no matter of capability, it's a truly unique school which allows for dedicated and encouraging learning. — Holly G . Artist Very detailed and informative course ! I have always been an admirer of Asian traditional painting and this course provided me of an insider's look of this magic world. With the help of Talia and the ARTBRUSH online courses, I have managed to learn, exercise and master special brushwork techniques otherwise unaccesible to me. I also got an overall understanding of the aesthetics around this beautiful world of ink painting. I totally recommend this! — Olympia T . Artist & Writer CONTENT Included in this membership ArtBrush library - Resources for the ink painter practitioner Welcome to the Library Welcome Learning Japanese Ink Painting - Introduction Mindful Notes for the Artist The Six Canons of Brush Painting Avoiding the Banal 4 Essential Japanese Ink Painting Tutorials What Makes a Painting Original ? How to Make a Line with Ink ? How to Make a Simple Line? Mastering the Power of Ink and Brush - Richard Weihe/ Shih-T'ao Learn From the Pine - Matsuo Bashō A Secret About Being an Artist Monochrome Ink - Beyond the Rainbow Understand your Tools and Materials Ink 墨 'sumi' Ink Stone 硯 'suzuri' Paper 紙 'kami' Brush 筆 'fude' Water-Droppers 水滴 'suiteki' seal 判子 'hanko' Japanese Watercolours 水彩 'suisai' How to Care for Your Tools and Materials Mounting Your Ink Painting How to Mount Your Painting How to Look at a Japanese Ink Painting The great Dream - Looking at One Zen Ink Painting Footprints of Enlightenment - The ink Painting of Zen master Hakuin (1686 – 1769) Irises at Yatsuhashi - A Japanese screen by Ogata Kōrin (1658 – 1716) - video Nagasawa Rosetsu -18th C. Eccentric Master of Ink Ink Dragons in Japanese Art of the Edo Period A Wild Rose and Butterfly - A Painting by Shibata Zeshin (1807 – 1891) - video Hydrangea of the Rinpa School - video A Crab Woodblock Print - by Utagawa Kunisada (1786 – 1865) Chrysanthemum by The Stream - From Jachuchū to Murakami The Mad Poet and the Wind - A drawing by Hokusai (1760-1849) A Shrike on a Barren Branch - An ink painting by Japan famous warrior Musashi (1584 – 1645) White Peony - by Hasegawa Tōhaku (1539 – 1610) - video Japanese Aesthetic 1. What Makes a Good Composition? 2. Wabi-Sabi and the Practice of Ink Painting 3. Wild Flowers and grasses and Mono-No-Aware 4. Haiga - Painted Poetry or Poetic Painting About Calligraphy Structure of the Writing System - Introduction Types of Script Outline Structure of Characters Pictures of Ink and Water 水 墨 画 'sui boku ga' - Calligraphy Practice Sample (with video) Notes for Your Calligraphy Practice Water 水 'sui' - Worksheet Ink 墨 'boku' - Worksheet Picture 画 'ga' - Worksheet Pictures of Ink and Water 水 墨 画 'sui boku ga' - How to do (0:57) Calligraphy Net for Practice - Print and use under your practice paper Recommended Resources by Talia 52 Favourites Books 22 Museum Collections of Japanese Art from Around the World 12 Sources for Tools and Materials ספרית בית הספר ׳אמנות המכחול׳ ברוכים הבאים לספריה הכרות עם ציודי ציור דיו יפני ארבעת האוצרות של ציור דיו דיו יפני - סוּמי - הקדמה חותמות בציור דיו מסורתי - הקדמה ודוגמאות איך לתחזק את ׳ארבעת אוצרות הציור׳ הערות חשובות לאמן ציור הדיו לימוד ציור דיו - הקדמה שִשה העיקרים של ציור דיו המנעות מהבנאלי הקו הנוֹשם התמחות בעֹצמת דיו ומכחול לִמדי מהאוֹרן - מצוּאוֹ בַּאשוֹ מתיחת ציורים הנחיות למתיחת הציור שלך על קליגרפיה מבנה מערכת הכתב - הקדמה סוגי כתב מתווה המבנה הפנימי של סימניות ׳תמונות דיו ומים׳ - סוּאִי-בּוֹקוּ-גָה - אימון קליגרפיה יפנית - הערות לאימון ׳סוּאִי׳ - מים - דף עבודה ׳בּוֹקוּ׳ - דיו - דף עבודה ׳גָה׳ - תמונה - דף עבודה ׳סוּאִי-בּוֹקוּ-גָה׳ -תמונות דיו ומים - וידאו קליגרפיה (0:57) רשת רקע לאימון סימניות קלגרפיה - להדפיס ולהניח מאחורי דף האימון Access the ArtBrush Library Selection of writings, essays and contemplations to guide you with your Japanese Ink painting studies Enrol for £55 FAQs Frequently Asked Questions When does the membership start and finish? The membership starts now and never ends! ArtBrush library is open for you to use whenever you want. How long do I have access to the library? How does lifetime access sound? After enrolling and as long as ArtBrush is live online, you have unlimited access to the library across any devices you own for as long as you like. Will I be able to access all materials in the library? Yes! The library is growing every month, and your membership allows you full access to all materials. How do I enrol? To enrol in the ArtBrush Library Membership, click on any "Enrol" button on this page and complete your purchase. You will need to create an account with us to purchase and access the library. If you already have an account, log in to complete your purchase. Then, you'll have access to the library, and your purchase details will be emailed to you. What software do I need to access the course? Please simply ensure that you have updated your internet browser to the latest version. If you run into any technical issues, we advise to clear your cache, cookies and browsing history. For any further technical enquiries please contact: artbrushonline@gmail.com What if I wish to cancel? We would never want you to be unhappy! If you are unsatisfied with your purchase, contact us in the first 7 days and we will give you a full refund. How can I get further help and ask a question? At any time, our team will help you at: artbrushonline@gmail.com

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